Dengue fever facts
- Dengue fever is a ailment caused by a group of viruses that are transmitted by mosquitoes.
- Symptoms of dengue fever incorporate extreme joint and muscle torment, swollen lymph hubs, cerebral pain, fever, depletion, and rash. The nearness of fever, rash, and cerebral pain (the “dengue set of three”) is normal for dengue fever.
- Dengue is common all through the tropics and subtropics.
- Dengue fever is caused by a virus, and there is no particular prescription or anti-microbial to treat it. For average dengue fever, the treatment is coordinated toward help of the side effects (symptomatic treatment).
- Papaya leaf extract can be utilized to treat dengue fever.
- The intense period of the ailment with fever and muscle torment keeps going around one to two weeks.
- Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a particular disorder that tends to influence youngsters under 10 years old. This complexity of dengue causes stomach torment, drain (dying), and circulatory crumple (stun).
- The counteractive action of dengue fever requires control or annihilation of the mosquitoes conveying the infection that causes dengue.
- An immunization for dengue fever was endorsed in April 2016 for use in dengue-endemic territories.
What is dengue fever? What causes dengue fever?
Dengue fever is an ailment caused by a group of infections transmitted by mosquitoes. It is an intense disease of sudden beginning that as a rule takes after an amiable course with side effects such as headache, fever, fatigue, extreme muscle and joint torment, swollen lymph hubs (lymphadenopathy), and rash. The nearness of fever, bothersome rash, and headache (the “dengue set of three”) is normal for dengue. Different indications of dengue fever incorporate draining gums, extreme torment behind the eyes, and red palms and soles
Dengue (articulated DENG-gay) can influence anybody however has a tendency to be more extreme in individuals with traded off resistant frameworks. Since it is caused by one of five serotypes of the dengue infection, it is conceivable to get dengue fever various circumstances. In any case, an assault of dengue produces invulnerability for a lifetime to that specific viral serotype to which the patient was uncovered.
Dengue passes by different names, including “breakbone fever” or “dandy fever.” Victims of dengue regularly have reshapings because of the extraordinary agony in the joints, muscles, and bones, consequently the name breakbone fever. Slaves in the West Indies who contracted dengue were said to have dandy fever in light of their stances and step.
Dengue hemorrhagic fever is a more extreme type of the viral disease. Side effects include headache, fever, rash, and proof of dying (discharge) in the body. Petechiae (little red spots or purple splotches or rankles under the skin), seeping in the nose or gums, dark stools, or simple wounding are for the most part conceivable indications of drain. This type of dengue fever can be perilous and can advance to the most serious type of the disease, dengue stun disorder.
What geographic areas are at high risk for contracting dengue fever?
Dengue is common all through the tropics and subtropics. Flare-ups have happened as of late in the Caribbean, including Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Cuba, and Central America. Cases have additionally been transported in through visitors coming back from zones with across the board dengue, including Tahiti, Singapore, the South Pacific, including the Philippines, Southeast Asia, the West Indies, India, and the Middle East (comparative in dispersion to the regions of the world that harbor malaria and yellow fever). Dengue is by and by the fundamental wellspring of exceptional febrile sickness in U.S. voyagers returning from the Caribbean, South America, and Asia.
- From January to July 2017, Sri Lanka revealed 80,732 instances of dengue fever, with 215 passings.
- New Delhi, India, revealed a flare-up of dengue fever, with 1,872 testing positive for the sickness in September 2015.
- In American Samoa, there were 370 instances of dengue detailed from May 2015 to September 2, 2015, and 133 were hospitalized.
- Thailand announced the most exceedingly bad dengue flare-up in 20 years, with 126 passings and 135,344 individuals contaminated with the infection, in October 2013.
- In 2011, Bolivia, Brazil, Columbia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela revealed countless cases. Paraguay detailed a dengue fever outbreak in 2011, the most noticeably awful since 2007. Healing centers were packed, and patients had elective medical procedures dropped because of the outbreak
What geographic areas are at high risk for contracting dengue fever? (continued)
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that from 1946 to 1980, no cases of dengue acquired in the continental United States were reported. Since 1980, a few locally acquired U.S. cases have been confirmed along the Texas-Mexico border, temporally associated with large outbreaks in neighboring Mexican cities.
A 2009 outbreak of dengue fever in the Florida town of Key West involved three patients who did not travel outside of the U.S. and contracted the virus. Subsequent testing of the population of Key West has shown that up to 5% of the people living in the area have antibodies to dengue. In total, 28 people were diagnosed with dengue fever in this outbreak. In 2015, 210 people were diagnosed with dengue on the Big Island of Hawaii. This is the largest outbreak in Hawaii since 2001, when 122 people were diagnosed with dengue.
Dengue fever is common in at least 100 countries in Asia, the Pacific, the Americas, Africa, and the Caribbean. Thailand, Vietnam, Singapore, and Malaysia have all reported an increase in cases.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there are about 390 million cases of dengue fever worldwide, and 96 million require medical treatment. Five hundred thousand cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever, the most severe form of dengue, require hospitalization each year. Nearly 40% of the world’s population lives in an area endemic with dengue. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates 22,000 deaths occur yearly, mostly among children.
The U.S. Habitats for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that from 1946 to 1980, no instances of dengue gained in the mainland United States were accounted for. Since 1980, a couple of privately procured U.S. cases have been affirmed along the Texas-Mexico fringe, transiently connected with vast flare-ups in neighboring Mexican urban communities.
A 2009 flare-up of dengue fever in the Florida town of Key West included three patients who did not go outside of the U.S. furthermore, gotten the infection. Resulting testing of the number of inhabitants in Key West has demonstrated that up to 5% of the general population living in the zone have antibodies to dengue. Altogether, 28 individuals were determined to have dengue fever in this flare-up. In 2015, 210 individuals were determined to have dengue on the Big Island of Hawaii. This is the biggest episode in Hawaii since 2001, when 122 individuals were determined to have dengue.
Dengue fever is normal in no less than 100 nations in Asia, the Pacific, the Americas, Africa, and the Caribbean. Thailand, Vietnam, Singapore, and Malaysia have all announced an expansion in cases.
As exhibited by the World Health Organization (WHO), there are around 390 million instances of dengue fever around the world, and 96 million require therapeutic treatment.Five hundred thousand examples of dengue hemorrhagic fever, the most extraordinary sort of dengue, require hospitalization consistently.About 40% of the total populace lives in a zone endemic with dengue. The World Health Organization (WHO) gauges 22,000 passings happen yearly, for the most part among kids.
How is dengue fever contracted? Is dengue fever contagious?
The infection is contracted from the chomp of a striped Aedes aegypti mosquito that has already nibbled a tainted individual. The mosquito thrives amid stormy seasons however can breed in water-filled vases, plastic packs, and jars year-round. One mosquito chomp can cause the infection.
The infection isn’t infectious and can’t be spread straightforwardly from individual to individual. It is mosquito-borne, so there must be a man to-mosquito-to-someone else pathway. The full life cycle of the infection includes the mosquito as the vector (transmitter) and the human as the wellspring of contamination.
What is the incubation period for dengue fever?
In the wake of being nibbled by a mosquito conveying the infection, the hatching time frame for dengue fever ranges from three to 15 (typically five to eight) days before the signs and indications of dengue show up in stages.
What are dengue fever symptoms and signs?
Dengue fever begins with indications of chills, cerebral pain, torment in the back of the eyes that may exacerbate after moving the eyes, craving misfortune, feeling unwell (disquietude), and low spinal pain. Agonizing throbbing in the legs and joints happens amid the principal long stretches of sickness. The temperature rises rapidly as high as 104 F (40 C), with moderately low heart rate (bradycardia) and low blood pressure (hypotension). The eyes end up blushed. A flushing or pale pink rash comes over the face and after that vanishes. The lymph hubs in the neck and crotch are frequently swollen.
High fever and different indications of dengue keep going for two to four days, trailed by a quick drop in body temperature (defervescence) with lavish perspiring. This goes before a period with ordinary temperature and a feeling of prosperity that endures about multi day. A second fast ascent in temperature takes after. A characteristic itchy rash (little red spots, called petechiae) shows up alongside the fever and spreads from the furthest points to cover the whole body with the exception of the face. The palms and soles might be brilliant red and swollen.
What tests do health care providers use to diagnose dengue fever?
The diagnosis of dengue fever is generally made when a patient shows the run of the mill clinical side effects of headache, high fever, eye torment, extreme muscle throbs, and petechial rash and has a past filled with being in a region where dengue fever is endemic. Dengue fever can be hard to determine in light of the fact that its manifestations cover to have those of numerous other viral ailments, for example, West Nile infection and chikungunya fever.
Health care professionals may utilize a blood test called the DENV Detect IgM Capture ELISA to determine individuals to have dengue fever. The FDA noticed that the test may likewise give a constructive outcome when a man has a firmly related infection, such West Nile ailment.
What is the treatment for dengue fever?
Because dengue fever is caused by a virus, there are no specific antibiotics to treat it. Antiviral medications are also not indicated for dengue fever. For typical dengue, the treatment is concerned with relief of the symptoms and signs. Home remedies such as rest and fluid intake (oral rehydration) are important. Pain relievers such as aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should only be taken under a doctor’s supervision because of the possibility of worsening bleeding complications. Acetaminophen (Tylenol) and codeine may be given for severe headache and for joint and muscle pain (myalgia).
Since dengue fever is caused by a virus, there are no particular anti-microbials to treat it. Antiviral drugs are likewise not demonstrated for dengue fever. For commonplace dengue, the treatment is worried about alleviation of the side effects and signs. Home cures, for example, rest and liquid admission (oral rehydration) are vital. Agony relievers, for example, ibuprofen and nonsteroidal calming drugs (NSAIDs) should just be taken under a specialist’s supervision in light of the likelihood of compounding draining confusions. Acetaminophen (Tylenol) and codeine might be given for extreme cerebral pain and for joint and muscle torment (myalgia).
Patients hospitalized for dengue may get IV liquids.
Carica papaya leaf remove (papaya leaf) has been appeared in a few clinical investigations to be a powerful treatment for dengue fever.
What types of doctors treat dengue fever?
In the event that you have side effects of dengue fever, you may first be seen by your essential care supplier (PCP, for example, your family expert or internist, and kids might be seen by a pediatrician. On the off chance that manifestations are extreme, you may see a crisis prescription specialist in a healing facility crisis division.
On the off chance that your specialist isn’t comfortable with treating dengue fever or your manifestations are serious, you may see an irresistible sickness specialist or a travel medicine physician.
How long does dengue fever last?
The intense period of dengue with fever and muscle torment (myalgia) keeps going around one to two weeks. Strengthening is joined by a sentiment of shortcoming (asthenia) and weakness, and full recuperation frequently takes half a month.
What is the prognosis for typical dengue fever?
The forecast for dengue is generally great. The most exceedingly terrible side effects of the sickness ordinarily last one to two weeks, and most patients will completely recuperate inside a few extra weeks.
Common dengue is lethal in under 1% of cases; be that as it may, dengue hemorrhagic fever is deadly in 2.5% of cases. On the off chance that dengue hemorrhagic fever isn’t dealt with, mortality (demise) rates can be as high as 20%-half.
What is dengue hemorrhagic fever?
Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a particular disorder that tends to influence kids under 10 years old. This entanglement of dengue fever causes stomach torment, drain (dying), and circulatory fall (stun). DHF is likewise called Philippine, Thai, or Southeast Asian hemorrhagic fever or dengue stun disorder.
DHF begins suddenly with persistent high fever and headache. There are respiratory and intestinal indications with sore throat, hack, queasiness, retching, and stomach torment. Stun happens two to six days after the beginning of side effects with sudden fall, cool, damp furthest points (the storage compartment is regularly warm), feeble heartbeat, and blueness around the mouth (circumoral cyanosis).
In DHF, there is seeping with simple wounding, red or purple blood spots in the skin (petechiae), spitting up blood (hematemesis), blood in the stool (melena), draining gums, and nosebleeds (epistaxis). Pneumonia is normal, and aggravation of the heart (myocarditis) might be available.
Patients with DHF must be checked intently for the initial couple of days since stun may happen or repeat steeply (dengue stun disorder). Cyanotic (having a somewhat blue shading to the skin and bodily fluid films) patients are given oxygen. Vascular fall (stun) requires quick liquid substitution. Blood transfusions might be expected to control dying.
The mortality (passing) rate with DHF is huge. With appropriate treatment, the World Health Organization gauges a 2.5% death rate. Be that as it may, without legitimate treatment, the death rate ascends to 20%. Most passings happen in kids. Babies under multi year of age are particularly in danger of biting the dust from DH.
What are potential complications of dengue fever?
In the event that dengue fever is serious, entanglements incorporate spillage of liquid from the bloodstream causing liquid collection in the furthest points, respiratory trouble, extreme dying, or organ disability. Without appropriate treatment, these manifestations can be lethal.
Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF; see above) is an entanglement of dengue that more often than not influences youngsters under 10 years old when it happens. This entanglement of dengue fever begins unexpectedly with ceaseless high fever and cerebral pain. DHF causes stomach torment, sore throat, hack, queasiness, spewing, discharge (dying), and circulatory crumple (stun). It can be lethal.
Another inconvenience is postinfectious weariness disorder, which can happen in around one-fourth of hospitalized dengue patients.
Is it possible to prevent dengue fever?
The transmission of the virus to mosquitoes must be hindered to keep the ailment. To this end, patients are kept under mosquito netting until the point that the second episode of fever is finished and they are never again ready to transmit the infection to a gnawing mosquito.
The counteractive action of dengue fever requires control or destruction of the mosquitoes conveying the infection that causes dengue. In countries tormented by dengue fever, individuals are asked to exhaust stale water from old tires, waste jars, and window boxes. Legislative activities to diminish mosquitoes additionally help to hold the malady within proper limits however have been inadequately viable.
To counteract mosquito chomps, wear long jeans and long sleeves. For individual security, utilize mosquito-repellant showers that contain DEET when going to places where dengue is endemic. There are no particular hazard factors for contracting dengue fever with the exception of living in or setting out to a region where the mosquitoes and infection are endemic. Restricting presentation to mosquitoes by abstaining from standing water and staying inside for two hours after dawn and before nightfall will help, as the Aedes aegypti mosquito is a daytime biter with top times of gnawing around dawn and dusk. It might nibble whenever of the day and is regularly covered up inside homes or different homes, particularly in urban regions.
Is there a dengue fever vaccine?
In April 2016, the WHO endorsed Sanofi Pasteur’s Dengvaxia (CYD-TDV), a live recombinant tetravalent antibody for dengue fever. Dengvaxia can be managed as a three-measurements arrangement in individuals 9-45 years old who live in territories where dengue is endemic.
In clinical preliminaries in Latin America and Asia including in excess of 40,000 kids and young people, Dengvaxia secured 66% of individuals matured 9 and more established against dengue. Dengvaxia was to a great degree effective at guaranteeing against genuine dengue, which can be deadly, keeping away from 93% of outrageous cases, and decreasing hospitalizations as a result of dengue by 80%.
Dengvaxia was at first affirmed in 2015 for utilize just in Mexico, the Philippines, Brazil, and El Salvador.
A few other vaccines for dengue are experiencing clinical preliminaries, yet none have yet been affirmed for utilize.
Where can people get more information on dengue fever?
“Dengue,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention